State Citizens Stop Voting: An Outline of Legal Reasons by John E. Trumane Last Update: December 2, 1993 Introduction I. There are 2 classes of citizenship under current American Law, not just 1 class. A. State Citizenship (upper-case "C") 1. a/k/a California Citizen, Nevada Citizen, etc. 2. a/k/a "Citizen of one of the States United" B. federal citizenship (lower-case "c") 1. a/k/a "citizen of the United States" 2. a/k/a "U.S. citizen" II. Under current California State law, only federal citizens can register to vote; State Citizens cannot register. A. see voter registration form, available at Post Office III. Registering to vote produces material evidence that one is a federal citizen who is, by definition, liable for federal income taxes, whereas State Citizens are not. A. State Citizens are protected by constitutional limits against direct taxation 1. direct taxes must be apportioned per Article 1, Section 9, Clause 4 and Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3 B. federal citizens are not protected by these same constitutional limits IV. State Citizens must cancel their voter registration to perfect and maintain their status under the Law. Body I. There are 2 classes of citizenship under American Law A. State Citizenship 1. found in the U.S. Constitution prior to the Civil War a. e.g. see qualifications for Representative, Senator, and President (1:2:2, 1:3:3, 2:1:5) 2. this is a sovereign class created and endowed by the Creator B. federal citizenship 1. 14th Amendment attempted to formalize a second class of citizen first defined in 1866 Civil Rights Act 2. this is a statutory creation, a subject class, created and endowed by the Congress, not by the Creator II. 2 recent decisions of Utah Supreme Court struck down the 14th Amendment. A. Congress and the President forced Southern States to vote for it "at the point of a bayonet", using the duress and undue influence of martial law. B. The Civl War was over and Southern States had already been counted upon to ratify the 13th Amendment, banning slavery. III. The consequences of the failed ratification are many and far-reaching: A. federal citizenship is not defined in the supreme Law (i.e. the U.S. Constitution) 1. it is, at best, the creation of federal statute 2. as such, it can be taxed, regulated, and even revoked, just like a corporation B. in contrast, State Citizenship is an unalienable Right which Congress cannot tax, regulate, or revoke 1. Congress cannot amendment the Constitution a. Congress derives its power solely from the Constitution b. Congress can lawfully exercise its powers only within the limitations of constitution 2. qualifications for Representative, Senator, and President have never been amended by the States a. the term "United States" in these provisions means "States United" (see People v. De La Guerra and Ex parte Knowles, Calif. Supreme Court) 3. since the Constitution as lawfully amended is perpetual, then so is the Sovereign State Citizenship which it has recognized from the beginning (1787) IV. The term "United States" has 3 separate and distinct meanings in American Law: A. The name of the sovereign nation, occupying the position of other sovereigns in the family of nations B. The federal government and the limited territory over which it exercises exclusive sovereign authority 1. to be a federal citizen is to be a "citizen of the United States" in this second sense of the term C. The collective name for the States united by and under the Constitution for the United States of America 2. to be a State Citizen is to be a "Citizen of the United States" in this third sense of the term (i.e. a "Citizen of one of the States United") V. One can be a State Citizen without also being a federal citizen A. see Crosse case from Maryland Supreme Court: "Both before and after the Fourteenth Amendment to the federal Constitution, it has not been necessary for a person to be a citizen of the United States in order to be a citizen of his state." [Crosse v. Board of Supervisors of Elections] [221 A.2d 431 (1966)] B. see State v. Fowler case from Louisiana Supreme Court: "But a person may be a citizen of a particular state and not a citizen of the United States. To hold otherwise would be to deny to the state the highest exercise of its sovereignty -- the right to declare who are its citizens." [State v. Fowler, 41 La. Ann. 380, 6 S. 602 (1889)] C. see Cruikshank court from U.S. Supreme Court: "We have in our political system a Government of the United States and a government of each of the several States. Each of these governments is distinct from the others, and each has citizens of its own ...." [United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1875)] D. numerous other authorities can be found, with cites, in "A Collection of Court Authorities in re Two Classes of Citizens" VI. California Legislature now requires that an elector be a "citizen of the United States" A. this qualification was predicated on a ratified 14th Amendment 1. the ambiguities in Section 1 of the 14th amendment confuse many into thinking there is but one class of citizenship throughout America 2. State legislators were likewise confused by these ambiguities, and by the deception surrounding the passage of this amendment B. this qualification prohibits State Citizens from registering to vote, and from voting 1. voter registration form exhibits a formal affidavit, signed under penalties of perjury, that voter is a federal citizen (see sample form) a. such an affidavit is admissible evidence in any State or federal court b. federal courts use this affidavit to establish income tax liabilities 2. perjury is punishable by 2 or 3 years in State prison (see warnings on registration form) a. warnings are in CONSPICUOUS text, which prevents signer from saying he didn't see it C. State Citizens must cancel their voter registration in order to perfect and maintain their status. 1. most registration forms were signed in ignorance of the 2 classes of citizenship in America 2. with this knowledge, State Citizens elect "to be treated" as federal citizens if they continue to vote after learning the law VII. federal citizens are liable for federal income taxes; State Citizens are not A. State Citizens are protected by constitutional limits against direct taxation 1. Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3 2. Article 1, Section 9, Clause 4 B. federal citizens are not protected by these same constitutional limits 1. Constitution for the "United States" as such does not extend beyond the boundaries of the States which are united by and under it. a. The Insular Cases established this dubious precedent at the turn of the century 2. a "citizen of the United States" is, effectively, a citizen of the District of Columbia, which never joined the Union a. Congress can enact local, "municipal" law for D.C. which is not constrained by the federal Constitution Conclusions I. State Citizens cannot register to vote under current California State law. II. California voter registration form has a formal affidavit by which signer swears, under penalties of perjury, that s/he is a "citizen of the United States". III. Such completed affidavits become admissible evidence and conclusive proof that signer is a federal citizen. IV. The exercise of federal citizenship is a statutory privilege which can be created, taxed, regulated and even revoked by Congress. V. The exercise of State Citizenship is an unalienable Right which Congress cannot tax, regulate or revoke under any circumstances. VI. Such a Right is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution, which Congress cannot amend without the consent of three-fourths of the Union States. The following pages are the text of a ten-minute debate on the subject -- 5 minutes in favor of withdrawing voter registration, and 5 minutes against withdrawing. These materials were used with much success in a public speaking class at the College of Marin, Kentfield, California Republic, in December of 1990. For more information about this and related subjects, please write to the Supreme Law School, c/o general delivery at: 2509 N. Campbell Avenue, #1776, Tucson 85719/tdc, ARIZONA STATE. # # # Related documents: "A Collection of Court Authorities in re Two Classes of Citizens"
Return to Table of Contents for
John E. Trumane