Aloe Vera Constituents & Their Properties

There is a wide range of research from all over the world based upon different species of Aloe. As far as is possible the Table below describes the Constituents found in Aloe Barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) with their Properties and their inferred activities. The Aloe constituents are derived from the Aloe Leaf, which consists of 3 primary sections: the Rind (photosynthesis) with Sap contained in the pericyclic transport tubules (Xylem and Phloem), the Mucilage (container) layer and the Parenchyma or Gel Filet (storage) layer. The relative quantities of the Aloe Constituents may be quite SMALL (the total solid fraction varies from 0.5 to 1.5%), but most researchers claim that the effects, that are observed may be due to the Synergistic Actions of the 75 known Ingredients. The Table below lists the Constituents in alphabetical order. The Aloe Constitiuent list represents a consensus view of published work and may NOT be COMPLETE. The Properties and the associated activities reported in the Table have been constructed using the References cited below.

Constituents Number & Identification Properties & Activity Comment
Amino Acids Provides 20 of the 22 human required amino acids & 7 of the 8 essential ones Provides the basic building blocks of proteins in the production of muscle tissue etc The 8 essential amino acids are those the human body cannot manufacture
Anthraquinones Provides 12 anthraquinones: Aloe emodin, Aloetic Acid, Aloin, Anthracine, Antranol, Barbaloin, Chrysophanic Acid, Emodin, Ethereal Oil, Ester of Cinnamonic Acid, Isobarbaloin, Resistannol. In relatively small concentrations together with the Gel fraction they provide Analgesic, Antibacterial, Antifungal & Antiviral activity. In high concentration on their own they can be toxic. Traditionally known as laxatives.The antraquinones are found in the sap. The anthraquinone derivatives (anthrones & chromones) comprise the phenolic fraction of the sap. The primary sap component is Aloin/Barbaloin anthrone derivative
Enzymes Provides 8 enzymes: Aliiase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Amylase, Carboxypeptidase, Catalase, Cellulase, Lipase, Peroxidase Helps breakdown of food sugars and fats aiding digestion & enhancing nutrient absorbtion
Hormones Auxins & Gibberellins Wound Healing & Anti-inflammatory
Lignin Cellulose based substance Thought to provide penetrating power in Aloe vera skin preparations and may act as a carrier for other components
Minerals Provides 9 minerals: Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Potassium, Sodium, Zinc Essential for good health and is known to work in certain combimation with each other, vitamins and other trace elements
Salicylic Acid Aspirin like compound Analgesic
Saponins Glycosides Soapy substance both cleansing and antiseptic
Sterols Provides 4 main plant steroids: Cholesterol, Campesterol, Lupeol, ß Sitosterol Anti-inflammatory agents. Lupeol also possesses antiseptic and analgesic properties
Sugars Monosaccharides: glucose & fructose

Polysaccarides: gluco-mannans / polymannose



Anti-inflammatory action

Anti-viral, immune modulating activity of Acemannan

The long chain gluco-mannons are absorbed intact by the pinocytotic process of certain cells lining the digestive tract.
Vitamins A, C, E, B, Choline, B12, Folic Acid Antioxidant(A,C,E): neutralises free radicals B's & Choline involved in amino acid metabolism, B12 required for production of red blood cells, Folic Acid in the development of blood cells

The Essential Aloe Vera, The Actions And The Evidence by Dr Peter Atherton, 2nd Edition, 1997
The Health and Medical Use of Aloe Vera by Lawrence G Plaskett, PhD, FRSC, 1998
Aloe Vera: A Scientific Approach by Robert H Davis, PhD, 1997
The Silent Healer: A Modern Study of Aloe Vera by Bill C Coates, R.Ph., C.C.N. with Robert Ahola, 1996
Aloe Vera: Nature's Soothing Healer by Diane Gage, 1996